Any address bit ANDed with a 1 bit value from the subnet mask will yield the original bit value from the address. So, a 0 (from the IPv4 address) AND 1 (from the subnet mask) is 0. 1 (from the IPv4 address) AND 1(from the subnet mask) is 1. Consequently, anything ANDed with a 0 yields a 0. These properties of ANDing are used with the subnet mask to "mask" the host bits of an IPv4 address. Each bit of the address is ANDed with the corresponding bit of the subnet mask.
Because all the bits of the subnet mask that represent host bits are 0s, the host portion of the resulting network address becomes all 0s. Recall that an IPv4 address with all 0s in the host portion represents the network address.
Likewise, all the bits of the subnet mask that indicate network portion are 1s. When each of these 1s is ANDed with the corresponding bit of the address, the resulting bits are identical to the original address bits.
As shown in the figure, the 1 bits in the subnet mask will result in the network portion of the network address having the same bits as the network portion of the host. The host portion of the network address will result in all 0s.
For a given IP address and its subnet, ANDing can be used to determine what subnetwork the address belongs to, as well as what other addresses belong to the same subnet. Remember that if two addresses are in the same network or subnetwork, they are considered to be local to each other and can therefore communicate directly with each other. Addresses that are not in the same network or subnetwork are considered to be remote to each other and must therefore have a Layer 3 device (like a router or Layer 3 switch) between them to communicate.
In network verification/troubleshooting, we often need to determine two hosts are on the same local network. We need to make this determination from the perspective of the network devices. Due to improper configuration, a host may see itself on a network that was not the intended one. This can create an operation that seems erratic unless diagnosed by examining the ANDing processes used by the host.