Unlike IPv4 addresses that are expressed in dotted decimal notation, IPv6 addresses are represented using hexadecimal values. You have seen hexadecimal used in the Packets Byte pane of Wireshark. In Wireshark, hexadecimal is used to represent the binary values within frames and packets. Hexadecimal is also used to represent Ethernet Media Access Control (MAC) addresses.

Hexadecimal ("Hex") is a convenient way to represent binary values. Just as decimal is a base ten numbering system and binary is base two, hexadecimal is a base sixteen system.

The base 16 numbering system uses the numbers 0 to 9 and the letters A to F. Figure 1 shows the equivalent decimal, binary, and hexadecimal values. There are 16 unique combinations of four bits, from 0000 to 1111. The 16 digit Hexadecimal is the perfect number system to use, because any four bits can be represented with a single hexadecimal value.

Understanding Bytes

Given that 8 bits (a byte) is a common binary grouping, binary 00000000 to 11111111 can be represented in hexadecimal as the range 00 to FF. Leading zeroes can be displayed to complete the 8-bit representation. For example, the binary value 0000 1010 is shown in hexadecimal as 0A.